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真人斗地主
浅议如何控制工业机器人工作能耗最小化

    要:

DANGQIANGONGYEJIQIRENZAIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGPUBIANXUYAOXIAOHAOJIAOGAODENENGHAO,CHANGSHITICHUGONGYEJIQIRENNENGHAOZUIXIAOHUAKONGZHICUOSHI,DADAJIANGDILIUZIYOUDUCHUANLIANGONGYEJIQIRENZAIZHIDINGDEGUIJIXIAYUNSUGONGZUOGUOCHENGZHONGSUOXIAOHAODENENGLIANG。ZAIJIYUGONGYEJIQIRENDABEI、XIAOBEI、YIJIYAOBUJINXINGDONGLIXUEJIANMODETONGSHI,ZAIJIUJIQIRENYAOBU、ZHOUBUJIJIANBUGUANJIEDENGNENGHAOJIAOGAOWEIZHIDEQUDONGDIANJIGOUJIANNENGHAOMOXING,JIEHEDONGLIXUEMOSHIYUNENGHAOMOXINGGOUJIANJIQIRENMUBIAONENGLIANGHANSHU,BINGJIYUCIQUEDINGGONGYEJIQIRENNENGHAOZUIXIAOHUAKONGZHICUOSHI。

关键词:

真人斗地主  

0 引言

DANGQIANGUONEIJIGUOWAIDOUZHENDUIJIQIRENBUTAIYULUJINGSHENRUYANJIU,DANGONGYEDESHIJIYINGYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,JIQIRENZISHENCUNZAIFUZADEYUNDONGFANGSHI,ERQIEJIQIRENBENSHENDEYUNDONGSUDUYEHUIYINGXIANGNENGHAO。GONGYEJIQIRENZUOWEILIUZIYOUDUCHUANLIANJIQIREN,SIFUDIANJIHEQUDONGQISHIQIGONGZUOGUOCHENGZHONGDUIDIANNENGXIAOHAOZUIDADEBUFEN,ZHEIQIZHONGJIAN、ZHOUYIJIYAOGUANJIEDUIYUNENGLIANGXIAOHAOZUIDA。

1 工业机器人概述

1.1 我国工业机器人发展现状

真人斗地主XIANGDUIYUFADAGUOJIAERYAN,WOGUOGONGYEJIQIRENYUZHIFAZHANCHAJUJIAODA,QIZHUYAOSHIYOUYUWOGUOGONGYEJIQIRENQIBUJIAOWANSUOZHI。XIANJIEDUAN,WOGUOZAIGONGYEJIQIRENFANGMIANYIJINGHUODELEYIDINGDEJISHUTUPO,DANSHANGWEIZHANGWOQUANBUHEXINJISHU,ZHENZHENGYONGYOUWOGUOZIZHUZHISHICHANQUANDEGONGYEJIQIRENJIAOSHAO。SUOYICONGZHENGTISHANGKAN,WOGUOGONGYEJIQIRENJISHUSHUIPINGXIANGDUIJIAODI。CIWAIWOGUOSUOZHIZAODEGAOJINGMIBUJIANSHUIPINGZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIBUJUYOUSHI,JINGUANMUQIANWOGUOZAISHUKONGJICHUANGGUANJIANJISHUYUZHUANGBEIJIZHUANGPEIZIDONGHUAJIQIREN、SUIDAOJUEJINJIQIRENDENGDUOGEFANGMIANDOUQUDELELINGRENZHUMUDECHENGJIU,DANXIANGDUIYUFADAGUOJIAERYAN,SHANGCUNZAIJUDACHAJU,BIXUYAOYUYIKEGUANKANDAIHEZHONGSHI。

1.2 工业机器人在自动化控制系统中的特点

GONGYEJIQIRENSHIZHISHANGSHIZAIGONGYELINGYUYINGYONGDEDUOGUANJIEJIXIESHOUHUOZHESHIJUYOUDUOZIYOUDUDEJIQIZHUANGZHI。YIBANERYAN,GONGYEJIQIRENZHISHAOXUYAOSANGEJIYISHANGDEZIYOUDU,FUZAJIQIRENZHONGDEZIYOUDUGENGGAO。KEYIJIANGGONGYEJIQIRENDEZIYOUDUZUCHENGDUOBIANLIANGDEKONGZHIXITONG,TONGGUODUOGEZUOBIAOZHIJIANDEBIANHUAN,DADAORANGGONGYEJIQIRENJINXINGDONGZUODEMUDE。ZAISHENRUFENXIGONGYEJIQIRENDEKONGZHIXITONGHOU,KEYIQUEDINGQIJIGOUYUNDONGXUEHEDONGLIXUEZHIJIANCUNZAIJINMILIANXI。WEILENENGGOUJIANGRENDEYIZHIZHUNQUEZHUANHUAWEIGONGYEJIQIRENDECAOZUO,XUYAOTONGGUOJISUANJIQIANGHUADUIQIDEKONGZHI,JUTIXUYAOJIEZHUFEIXIANXINGSHUXUEMOXING,YINGYONGGAIMOXINGSHEZHIXIANGGUANMOXINGCANSHU,DIAOZHENGGONGYEJIQIRENDEYUNXINGZHUANGTAI。XUYAOMINGQUEDESHIGONGYEJIQIRENKEYIZIZHUXUANZEZUIWEIHESHIDELUJINGLAIWANCHENGSHEZHIDEDONGZUO,SUOYIDUIYUGAOJIGONGYEJIQIRENERYAN,YINGDANGJIEZHUJISUANJIWEIQIGOUJIANXIANGYINGDESHUJUKU,YITIGAOGONGYEJIQIRENDUIYUGEGEDONGZUODEZHIXINGZHILIANG。

2 工业机器人的能耗建模

2.1 降低机器人能耗

真人斗地主GONGYESHENGCHANZHONGSUOSHIYONGDELIUZIYOUDUGONGYEJIQIREN,QIDIZUODOUSHIGUDINGWUFAYIDONGDE,YAOBUANZHAOYAOGUANJIEDECHUIZHIFANGXIANGJINXINGZHUANDONG。GONGYEJIQIRENDEYUNDONGSULV、BIANSUSHIJIASUDU、YUNDONGGUIJI、DIANJIDONGTAITEXING、SIFUDIANJIKONGZHIDENGYINSUSHIYINGXIANGGONGYEJIQIRENGONGZUOHAODIANLIANGDEGUANJIANSUOZAI。SIFUDIANJISHIGONGYEJIQIRENZAIYUNDONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHUYAOHAODIANYUAN,SUOYIYINGDANGCONGRUXIAJIGEJIAODURUSHOUJIEJUEWENTI。SHOUXIAN,QUEDINGNENGHAOZUIDIDEGONGZUOLUJING;QICI,DUIGONGZUOJIQIRENDELIUCHENGJINXINGYOUHUA,JINKENENGJIANGDIGONGZUOJIQIRENDEJIASUCISHU,BINGJIANGDIJIASUDU;DISAN,KONGZHIGONGYEJIQIRENDEYUNDONGSUDU;DISI,HELIDIAOZHENGYUANPAIGONGYEJIQIRENDEDONGZUOZHUANGTAI;DIWU,YINGYONGGENGWEIXIANJINDEDIANJIYITIGAODIANNAODEZHUANHUAXIAOLV。

2.2 能耗分析

GONGYEJIQIRENYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGZHUYAOXUYAOJIAOLIUSIFUDIANJI、JIAOLIUSIFUDIANJIWUXIANDIANSHUAYIJIZHUANXIANGQIDENGDIANQIHEDIANJI,QIBENSHENKEKAOXINGJIAOGAO,DUIYUWEIHUBAOYANGDEYAOQIUBUGAO,BINGQIECUNZAIDINGZIRAOZUSANREFANGBIANHEGUANLIANGXIAODETEDIAN,KEYIHENHAOSHIYINGGAOSUJIDALIJUDEGONGZUOZHUANGTAI。YOUYUCIBUJIANSHIGONGYEJIQIRENYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGNENGHAOZHANYONGZUIDUODEBUFEN,SUOYITONGGUOKONGZHISIFUDIANJIDENENGHAO,JIUNENGGOUYOUXIAOJIANGDIGONGYEJIQIRENDEZHENGTINENGHAO。

快速发展的电子技术有效促进交流伺服电机的改革创新,当前交流伺服电机已经在驱动技术方面取得了令人瞩目的成绩,因此,想要从提升电机性能角度降低能耗,并不能够达到预期目标,所以可以尝试对工业机器人的工作轨迹进行优化来达到降低能耗的目的。除了需要确定最佳轨迹之外,还必须要确定与该轨迹匹配最合理的速度,以确保工业机器人的整体运动状态都能够满足低能耗要求。惯性也是增加能耗的主要原因之一,相对于机器人匀速运行,其加速或减速状态的能耗更高,所以必须要尽可能减少机器人的加速及减速动作,对其加速及减速运动进行合理安排,达到降低能耗的目的。伺服电机主要由转子与定子两部分共同组成,定子对电机起支撑作用,并固定磁极,而转子则对电动势进行感应。通过二者的配合,将电能转化为机械能。转子工作过程中所受主要作用是电磁转矩,电磁转矩使得机械出现负载转动,可以确定电动机的平衡公式是:Tem=Tm+T0。其中Tem代表交流电伺服电机的电磁转矩,Tm为电机轴的输出转矩,T0为机械损耗、铁芯损耗以及杂损耗所共同产生的空载制动转矩。

相对于机械负载所产生的转矩,工业机器人自身的机械损耗、铁芯损耗以及杂损耗等构成的空载制动转矩要小得多。所以可以直接忽略空载制动转矩,即电动机平衡公式为:Tem=Tm。基于此按照电动机转矩特点,确定电机机械负载制动转矩和电机输电电流的计算公式,最终确定工业机器人各关节力矩及伺服电机的大小间关系为:TM =εMTi,进而确定工业机器人不同关节间电流为[I1,I2,I3]T=[TM1/K1,TM2/K2,TM3/K3]T

GONGYEJIQIRENZAIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,QIDIANJIYIBANCHUYUYUNSUYUNZHUANZHUANGTAI,ZAIGONGYEJIQIRENJINXINGJIANSUHEJIASUCAOZUODESHIHOU,XUYAOWEIJIXIEBEISHIJIAJIASUDU,JINERGAIBIANJIQIRENDEYUNDONGZHUANGTAI,SUOYIXIANGDUIYUYUNSUZHUANGTAIERYAN,XUYAOXIAOHAOGENGGAODENENGLIANG。JIQIRENZAIWENDINGGONGZUOZHUANGTAIXIA,QIHENGDINGDEZHUANSUDUIYUNENGLIANGXIAOHAOJIAOXIAO。KEYIZAICIJICHUSHANGQUEDINGJIQIRENXIAOHAODEZONGNENGLIANG,ZAIYINGYONGMATLABQUEDINGNENGHAOZUIXIAOZHI。ZAIYANZHENGJISUANJIEGUOSHI,XUYAODUIZUIDAZHUANSUDUIYUJIQIRENGONGZUOZHUANGTAIXIANZHIYUYICHONGFENKAOLV,BINGQUEDINGGONGYEJIQIRENDEGONGZUOSHIJIAN,ZUIZHONGGENJUSUOHUODEDEZUIJIALUJINGGUIHUAJIQIRENDEJUTIGONGZUOLIUCHENG。

3 展望工业机器人在自动化控制中的发展

真人斗地主DANGQIANWOGUOZAIGONGYEJIQIRENFANGMIANMINGQUELEZHANLVEFAZHANMUBIAO,YAOJIYUWOGUODUIYUXIANJINZHIZAOHEQIZIDONGHUADEJUTIYAOQIU,JIJICHUANGXINGAOXINJISHU,XIANGFADAGUOJIAKAOLONG,SHENRUYANJIUJUYOUGENGGAOSHUIPINGDEGONGYEJIQIREN,BINGQIEZAIXITONGJISHUYIJICHANPINJISHUDENGDUOGEFANGMIANDOUQUDELELINGRENZHUMUDECHENGJIU。ZAIWEILAI,GONGYEJIQIRENJIANGHUIZHUYAOXIANGWEIXIANZUOYEHUANJINGJIQIREN、YIXUELINGYUJIQIRENYIJIFANGSHENGJIQIRENFANGMIANFAZHAN。WEIXIANGONGZUOHUANJINGJIQIREN,QIZHUYAOFUZEGAOWENJIGAOYAHUANJINGXIADEZUOYEYUYOUQIGUANDAOJIANCEDEGONGZUO;YIXUELINGYUJIQIRENZHUYAOFUZEXIEZHUKAIZHANNAOWAIKESHOUSHU、GUGEJIAOZHENGSHOUSHUDENGDUIYUJINGXIDUYAOQIUJIAOGAODESHOUSHU,TONGGUODUIYIXUELINGYUJIQIRENDEGUANGFANYINGYONG,YOUXIAOBIMIANYINRENGONGERCHANSHENGDEWUCHA,QIESHITIGAOSHOUSHUJINGMIDU;FANGSHENGJIQIRENFANGMIAN,YINGYONGGAILEIXINGJIQIRENKEYIMONIRENLEIHUODONGWUJINXINGXIANGGUANCAOZUOKONGZHI。ZHENGTIERYAN,WOGUOGONGYEJIQIRENZAIZIDONGHUAKONGZHIFANGMIANJIANGHUIXIANGZHEGENGJIAZHINENGHUA、GENGJIADICHENGBEN、GENGJIAKEKAOYIJIGENGJIAJICHENGHUADEFANGXIANGFAZHAN。

4 结语

DANGQIANSHEHUIJINGJIHEKEXUEJISHUKUAISUFAZHAN,ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,GONGYEJIQIRENDEGONGNENGJIJISHUDOUDEDAOXIANZHUTISHENG,QIYIJINGNENGGOUHENHAOMANZUFUZADEZIDONGHUAKONGZHIXUQIU。BINGQIESUIZHEQIYEGONGYESHENGCHANZIDONGHUACHENGDUZHUJIANTISHENG,GONGYEJIQIRENDEYINGYONGFANWEIYEHUIYUELAIYUEGUANGFAN,YOUXIAOCUJINSHEHUIJINGJIDEJIXUFAZHAN。

参考文献

真人斗地主WENZHANGZHAIZIZHONGGUOZHIWANG  RUYOUQINQUAN  LIANXISHANCHU


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